An article examining the report cards of 82 public kindergarten students. Eight grade categories and 34 separate grades were compared by t tests between members of groups: (1) males and females, (2) morning and afternoon sessions, (3) high and low parent involvement, (4) Native Americans and Caucasians, (5) working mothers and non-working mothers. Analysis of Variance with Multiple Classification analysis were completed on eight grade categories and x2 (chi) tests were completed on 34 separate grades within the socio-economic status group and within the family styles group. According to the author, results indicated no significant differences between grades for male and female groups, morning and afternoon classes, and high and low parent involvement groups (t=p<.1). Grade categories of Child's General Characteristics and Social Development were significantly different for Native American and Caucasian groups (t=p<.05). The author concludes many significant differences were found for grades from the high/middle/low socio-economic groups and from married, single and alternative family styles (F=p<.05).
By comparing Native American high school girls with Native American high school boys on the reservation, as well as with white high school girls outside the reservation, the author attempted to shed light on the characteristics of Indian girls with regard to their negative perspectives of the world, toward their family and toward school. The study was based on a set of questions given to students from nine high schools in southeastern Montana. According to the author, findings from the study indicated that, in contrast to the other two groups, reservation Indian girls harbored a more isolated and pessimistic outlook on the world and toward their parents.
An article based on a descriptive study conducted among Native American Registered Nurses (RN) investigating their attributes of success, as measured by the number of attempts required to pass State Board Examinations (SBE). The attributes were divided into three major areas: personal characteristics, nursing program characteristics, university setting characteristics. Each of these was measured on a Likert-type scale. A questionnaire was utilized to obtain information as well as demographic information, including tribe, educational level in nursing and non-nursing fields, and type of employment. The data were analyzed using frequencies, Pearson r, and Multiple Stepwise Regression. According to the article, the analysis indicated that peer and family support were significant in passing SBE, as were personal characteristics such as study habits and motivation. The author concludes that implications for nursing education include the importance of providing peer support for Native American nursing students.
The article is the author's response to the standard complaint that whites are being excluded from the Natural Resource job market by hiring practices that favor minorities. According to the article, the Native American Career Education in Natural Resources (NACENR) program at Humboldt State University in Arcata, California, conducted a survey of natural resource agencies. The results of the survey indicated that there was no relationship between minority status and the potential for placement. In fact, says the author, most natural resource agencies employ no professional minorities and recent (1984-85) hiring practices by such agencies favor whites (94%) to minorities (6%).
According to the article, educational efforts to raise awareness among Native people about alcohol abuse have not been very successful as many of the efforts have not been relevant to Native culture. Rather than utilizing traditional forms of education involving lectures, films and pamphlets, theater was introduced as a medium to convey an important health message related to alcohol abuse. The play, "Jukebox Lady," which focused on the abuse of alcohol by Indian women, was found to be an appropriate medium to raise the level of awareness of Native audiences. The play toured 19 locations including many Reserves in Northern Ontario, Canada. Approximately 2,000 Native and a few non-Native people saw the play. A random sample of the audience completed a one-page questionnaire. According to the article, there was universal agreement that the performance was enjoyable with nearly everyone indicating they would again attend a similar play. A number of Chiefs, band council members and Community Health Representatives who also were surveyed, generally supported the audience response by agreeing that the play was not only a good way to promote the awareness to alcohol and drug abuse problems for Native people, but that they would encourage people on their Reserves to attend the performance.
The article was the result of a study designed to determine whether leadership perceptions of non-Indian junior high students were related to leadership perceptions of American Indian junior high students and the extent to which this relationship existed. Subjects in the study included 168 American Indian and non-Indian junior high school students from four school sites, two urban and two rural. A leadership perception instrument was administered to the students at four different schools. The results of the study indicated that the leadership perceptions of the students from the different school sites were quite similar. The authors continue that the conclusion was based on data from the obtained sample and that caution should be used in making generalizations to any other hypothetical population of American Indian and non-Indian students.
An article which focused on the current image of the North American Indian in recent (since the mid-70s) American and Canadian history and social studies textbooks. In total, 10 sources (reports assessing the portrayal of Native Americans in textbooks), spanning several provinces and states, were consulted. According to the article, findings varied somewhat depending on the type of analysis, but, overall, the results were consistent. In short, cumulative evidence suggests that there have been no appreciable changes in the depiction of the North American Indian in most history and social studies textbooks since the 1960s. "Indeed," states the author, "the Indian continues to be portrayed in extreme, simplistic, stereotypical roles."
The article sums up a study designed to develop a profile of the average (Reservation) Navajo student through assessment of intellectual, physical, and environmental factors. In addition, possible contributors to Navajo achievement were delineated. Utilizing a stratified random sample, 222 Navajo fifth graders were given a battery of tests including the Weschsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, the Human Figure Drawing, the Wide Range Achievement Test, the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt, the Visual Motor Integration, and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Selected students were given the California Test of Basic Skills. Medical records were reviewed to assess the students' physical status. Environmental factors were measured by means of student interviews and school records. The students were also measured as to their motivation to learn and their school attendance. The sample revealed an average spatial intelligence and a low verbal intelligence with marked needs in (auditory) conceptualization and language. According to the author, the following factors were significantly associated with achievement: attendance, language, visual processing, motivation, illness, family income, and ear disease. In a selected sample, the Navajo students did not achieve as well as their non-Indian classmates. The author suggests that the WISC-R does have predictive achievement validity for the Navajo.
According to the article, the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices (RSPM) was administered to 183 classroom Navajo students who ranged from 13 to 15 years of age and were from BIA and public schools in Arizona and New Mexico. Scores were evaluated on the basis of primary language (Navajo vs. English) and school geographical location (on reservation vs. off reservation), and norms were developed according to chronological age, primary language, sex, and school geographic location. From their findings, the authors suggest that primary language does not play a prominent role in the RSPM performance of adolescent Navajo students, and that the RSPM is appropriate for use with Navajo students attending school on or off the reservation.
According to the authors, the Postsecondary Counselor Program "offers a new model for increasing the success of Native American students in college." The article states that the pre-college orientation program, special student services programs, and career-focused programs "have little long-term personal connection with students' families and communities." The article then proposes the Postsecondary Counselor as, first, lodged in the central office of a K-12 school district, and second, as "student-based" rather than institution-based or mission-based. According to the authors, the "Postsecondary Counselor Program provides rural Native American students with the same type of personal attention and support during the difficult early adult years that middle class students take for granted."
The article discusses four areas of research that provide evidence for important differences in Learning Style between Indian and non-Indian students: (1) internal cognitive processes or learner characteristics, (2) external or environmental conditions, (3) teaching and communication styles, (4) traditional learning styles. According to the author, differences in Learning Style "occur frequently but are not found with sufficient consistency to suggest a uniquely Indian learning style. However, they occur often enough to warrant careful attention." The article suggests seven areas of learning style strengths and weaknesses among Native people and outlines four implications for teachers and three other specific implications. The author concludes that the "most effective application of learning style theory lies in the greater understanding and ability to adapt to individual differences, and in identifying and building on the strengths of Indian students."
"Native American 4th grade children (N=30) from the Tuba City, Arizona Boarding School were provided with a pilot computer program for ten weeks in order to study the feasibility of using LOGO, a computer programming language designed to promote cognitive development, and Bank Street Writer, a word processing program for children. The model program used computers as interactive tools for promoting reasoning and writing. Data were gathered by observational methods, including documenting of child behavior and talk in the regular and computer classrooms and children's logs of daily work. Samples of the children's computer work and the observations by the researchers also provided data for evaluation of the pilot program. The study demonstrated that Native American children can learn in a LOGO environment and that the children, the community, and the school supported such efforts. Finally the study noted that language use in the computer classroom was significantly more evident than in regular classrooms."